You will already know about haematuria and proteinuria. Further links are listed from our cases page (Cases 1 and 2). In addition to this prognostic and management information, you should understand how blood and protein get into the urine, and how characteristics of the red cells and protein can give guidance to the likely origin.
In Edinburgh the process of urine testing is the subject of a practical exercise in Year 2 of the undergraduate medical curriculum. We don't yet have anything here on this process.
Some more detail on urine microscopy and automated analysis is available from the following links:
||Microscopy of the urine sediment - an excellent detailed account from the Italian Society of Nephrology website.|
|Automated analysis (this link is in German) of urine particles using a flow cytometer. A recent innovation but seems very effective. This is the instrument used to analyse urine samples in the Microbiology Labs in Edinburgh.|
|Urinalysis tutorial from the University of Florida - but curiously on the University of Utah website.|